Abstract: Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive malignancy that typically presents with vague symptoms, ascites, and/or diffuse peritoneal studding. Despite findings of advanced disease within the peritoneal cavity, spread beyond the abdomen is uncommon. Although advances in systemic chemotherapy have been made, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) remain the mainstay of treatment. Median overall survival of approximately 50 months with CRS/HIPEC has been demonstrated, with age, gender, histologic subtype, peritoneal carcinomatosis index, comorbidities, nodal and extra-abdominal metastases, and completeness of cytoreduction all playing a role in prognosis. In patients with refractory malignant ascites and unresectable disease, complete resolution of ascites and improvement in quality of life have been demonstrated with palliative HIPEC. In appropriately selected patients, CRS/HIPEC plays a critical role in the treatment and palliation of MPM.